The Airmen's Stories - P/O A Lammer
Alfred Lammer was born in Linz, Austria on November 28th 1909. In his youth he was a keen and accomplished climber and skier, practising mainly around Zell am See near Salzburg. In 1934 he went to London to work for the Austrian Travel Service. When Germany invaded Austria in 1938, he was offered German citizenship but, being bitterly anti-Nazi, he declined and was declared stateless as a consequence.
Lammer lost his job and for a year he lived on his savings and studied photography.
Lammer - or the Ritter von Lammer as he then was - had already experienced the effect of Nazi policies long before the outbreak of war. In 1935 Hitler's imposition of an enormous tax on any German visiting Austria destroyed the latter country's tourism industry and led to the collapse of the successful travel company founded by Lammer's mother. The thriving bank she had also set up was then hit by bad debts, and Lammer toured the salerooms of London trying in vain to sell a Leonardo painting deposited as security by one customer of the bank, an art historian and noted forger.
Another casualty of the bank was the von Trapp family, who were friends of the Lammers (Alfred Lammer took his driving test in Captain von Trapp's car). The loss of much of their savings helped to decide the von Trapps to leave Austria for America, where their singing talent and adventures inspired 'The Sound of Music'.
Lammer's mother's debts led to her being sent to prison, where she died of pneumonia. His elderly father died soon afterwards, and when Germany annexed Austria in 1938 Lammer decided to stay in London. He stopped using his title of "Ritter", and soon dropped the "von" too.
When war came, Lammer offered his services to the Air Ministry. Having been vouched for by the banker Sam Guinness, he was classified a "friendly enemy alien" and restricted to travel within a five-mile radius of his lodgings. He was granted an Emergency Commission in March 1940, for training as an Air Gunner.
He did not become a British citizen until May 22nd 1941. After initial ground training at Loughborough, Lammer went on a gunnery course at 9 BGS, Penrhos on April 8th 1940. He joined 254 Squadron at Bircham Newton on May 4th and was immediately attached to 206 Squadron, flying in Hudsons on convoy escorts. In early July Lammer was posted to 5 OTU, Aston Down, where he converted to Defiants before joining 141 Squadron at Prestwick.
On August 10th he was sent to Warmwell for a Gunnery Leaders' course and
then rejoined 141. Lammer retrained on Beaufighters and was posted to 409
(RCAF) Squadron at Coleby Grange on November 1st 1941. He went to 255
Squadron at Coltishall on February 5th 1942, as Navigation Leader.
The squadron flew to Gibraltar on November 14th and landed at Maison
Blanche, Algiers the next day. Lammer went with a detachment to Souk-el-Arba on December 5th. He assisted in the destruction of a He111 and two Cant
1007's on the 6th, flying with Squadron Leader JH Player. On
December 15th and 17th two Ju88's were destroyed, with Wing Commander
DPDG Kelly. Lammer was awarded the DFC (gazetted 16th February 1943).
Night-time combat brought its own risks. On one occasion, Lammer's fighter flew straight through the exploding debris of an enemy aircraft it had just destroyed. Lammer and his pilot were unharmed but one of their engines was damaged and they limped home in the dark. Making a difficult approach on one engine, they overshot the runway and ploughed at speed through the middle of a parked Hurricane. Both men emerged unhurt from the wreckage, but the joke went round that they had scored "three confirmed" in a single flight.
On June 25th, flying again with Player, Lammer assisted in destroying a Cant
1007. The detachment at Souk-el-Arba ended on July 31st. With his tour completed, Lammer returned to the UK and was posted as Squadron Leader i/c Radar and Navigation at 62 OTU, Ouston on September 21st 1943. He was
awarded a Bar to the DFC (gazetted 29th October 1943).
Lammer went to 54 OTU, Charter Hall as Senior Navigation Radar Instructor
on June 5th 1945. He received a Mention in Despatches (gazetted 14th June 1945) and was released on November 7th 1945, as a Squadron Leader.
All four wartime assessments of his abilities graded him "Exceptional".
After being demobilised in 1945, he pursued his interest in photography. He combined freelance work with teaching, both at the Central School of Art and at Guildford School of Art, where in 1952 he set up the first school of colour photography in Britain. Those he taught included Jane Bown and John Hedgecoe.
Lammer himself specialised in close-up photography of plants. He used only natural light and always photographed flowers or trees in situ, often waiting for an hour or more before the conditions were right for a single shot. The delicate, subtly composed results revealed the beauty inherent in even the humblest leaf, and in 1987 his meticulous artistry reached a wider audience when his pictures were used for a special edition of postage stamps.
In 1960 Lammer took the photographs for Thames & Hudson's English Stained Glass, a project which made full use of his skill as a climber. Shod in boots hand-made for him by the alpine outfitters Robert Lawrie, Lammer improvised ways of manoeuvring himself, his camera and his tripod into perilous positions high above church floors in order to photograph (often for the first time) the details of medieval windows.
For seven years, Lammer was the photographer at the Council of Industrial Design, and after retiring from Guildford School of Art in 1976 he taught photography part-time to graduate students at the Royal College of Art for another decade. He was an honorary Fellow of the RCA and was decorated by Austria for services to art.
A modest, kind man with unshakeable integrity, Lammer kept himself fit into old age, retaining the sturdy, tanned build of the mountaineer. At the age of 90 he still did press-ups every day and had a full head of hair.
He married first, in 1941 (dissolved 1946), the Canadian violinist Kathleen Tierney. She died in 1956, and in 1958 he married secondly Countess Benedicta Wengersky. She survives him together with their son and three daughters.
He died in 2000 aged 90.